Sept. 15 was chosen as the starting point for the celebration of Hispanic Heritage
Month because it is the anniversary of independence of five Latin American countries:
Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. In addition, Mexico and
Chile celebrate their independence days on Sept. 16 and Sept. 18.
As America’s largest growing ethnic group, about 60 percent of people of Hispanic
descent have type O blood compared to 45 percent of Caucasians and 50 percent of African
Americans. Type O is the blood hospitals need most.
With 329 million native speakers, Spanish ranks as the world's No. 2 language in terms
of how many people speak it as their first language. It is slightly ahead of English
(328 million) but behind Chinese (1.2 billion).
The term Hispanic was first adopted by the United States government in the early 1970s,
and has since been used in local and federal employment, mass media, academia, and
business market research. It has been used in the U.S. Census since 1980. Because
of the popularity of "Latino" in the western portion of the United States, the government
adopted this term as well in 1997, and used it in the 2000 census.
There are 1.1 million Hispanic veterans of the U.S. armed forces.
The term “Hispanic” originally denoted a relationship to Hispania, more commonly known
as Portugal and Spain, and the people colonized by those two countries.
According to the 2010 Census, Hispanics accounted for more than half of the growth
in United States population between 2000 and 2010. The U.S. is the fifth largest
Hispanic country in the world. The majority of the U.S. population is Mexican American,
followed in size by Central and South Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans.
Spaniards are believed to be the longest continuously established population in Europe.
Hispanics are not a monolithic group. In reality, some Hispanic subgroups have remarkably
few characteristics in common. Various subgroups reflect great differences in ethnicity,
culture, origin and can cover the racial spectrum, from white, African American, Asian,
Pacific Islander and Native American. Hispanics are a mix of European, African and
Native American people.
The Chicano movement was a civil rights movement that started by looking for the restoration
of land grants. The movement expanded to encompass Mexican farm worker’s rights,
enhanced education, voting rights and political rights.
Compared with non-Hispanics, cancer rates among Hispanics are lower overall and lower
for the major sites -- lung, breast, prostate, and colorectal.
From 1980 to 1995, the Hispanic population of Georgia grew 130 percent.
The Hispanic family is a close-knit group and the most important social unit. The
family unit usually extends beyond the nuclear family.
Hispanics usually place great value on appearance as a sense of honor, dignity and
Religion plays a significant role in day-to-day life. More than 90 percent of the
Spanish-speaking world is Roman Catholic.
The Georgia Hispanic Chamber of Commerce (ghcc.org) represents the interests of Hispanic
businesses in the state. First established in 1994 as the Atlanta Hispanic Chamber
of Commerce, the organization now has more than 1,300 members.
The Hispanic American Center for Economic Development was founded in 2001 by the Georgia
Hispanic Chamber of Commerce. Since then, it has helped more than 59,000 entrepreneurs.
St. Augustine, Florida, and Sante Fe, New Mexico were Hispanic cities founded before
Seventy percent of the Hispanic population lives in five states: California, Texas,
New York, Florida and Illinois
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed February 2, 1848, ended the Mexican-American
War. The United States agreed to pay Mexico $15 million. This agreement also included
a territorial settlement in which the United States annexed the northern portion of
Mexico, resulting in what is today Texas, New Mexico and California.
The terms Hispanic and Latino tend to be used interchangeably in the United States
for people with origins in Spanish-speaking or Portuguese-speaking countries, like
Mexico, Costa Rica, and Brazil. Contrary to many beliefs, Hispanic is not a race,
but an ethnicity.
From 1998 to 1999 to 2008 to 2009, the number of associate's degrees earned by Hispanics
more than doubled (increasing by 101 percent) During the same time period, the number
of bachelor's degrees awarded Hispanic students increased by 85 percent.