Bibliography


The following bibliography has been assembled by Healthy Perspectives faculty to facilitate your understanding of cultural competency. The bibliography is comprised of peer-reviewed publications, reports and white papers, as well as web resources, and is organized in seven content-related domains:

  • Accreditation. References in this section describe and explain cultural competency as it relates to accreditation requirements.
  • Communication. Manuscripts, texts and resources in this section provide guidelines and suggestions for effectively communicating with patients from different cultural background and/or patients who may have limited English proficiency.
  • Culture & Cultural Competency. There are a number of resources in this section that define and explain what culture and cultural competency mean, as well as why it is relevant for health professionals to be culturally competent.
  • Demographics. This section contains references and resources that explain the changing nature of the U.S. population.
  • Health Disparities. There are a number of manuscripts and resources in this section which explains the link between culture and health disparities and how cultural competency can be a skill to provide culturally appropriate care.
  • Patient-Centered Care. Manuscripts in this section frame how cultural competency is related to patient-centeredness.
  • Self-Awareness. Manuscripts and texts in this section focus on the importance of health professionals being reflective, understanding their unconscious beliefs, improving cross-cultural communications and how these factors can impact the patient – healthcare professional relationship.

ACCREDITATION

1. The Joint Commission: Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient- and Family-Centered Care: A Roadmap for Hospitals. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: The Joint Commission, 2010. 

The Joint Commission is the accreditation body for health care organizations and program and defines concepts, such as cultural competence and patient- and family-centered care, as well as providing standards and guidance on providing appropriate services.

COMMUNICATION

1. The Joint Commission: Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient- and Family-Centered Care: A Roadmap for Hospitals. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: The Joint Commission, 2010.

The Joint Commission is the accreditation body for health care organizations and program and defines concepts, such as cultural competence and patient- and family-centered care, as well as providing standards and guidance on providing appropriate services.

2. Ambady, N., Rosenthal, R. (1988). Nonverbal Communication. Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 2. Academic Press.
This resource explores the nature of nonverbal communication and its importance to health care.

3. Misra-Herbert, A. (2003). Physician cultural competence: Cross-cultural communication improves care. Cleve Clin J Med, 70(4), 289-303. 
The importance of cultural competence, specifically communication, is discussed, focusing on improving the patient – provider relationship and providing quality care.

4. Roat, C. (2005). Addressing Language Access Issues in Your Practice: A Toolkit for Physicians and their Staff Members. California Academy of Family Physicians and the CAFP Foundation.
This toolkit was developed by the California Academy of Family Physicians (CAFP) to help guide health care organizations in providing quality care to limited English proficient patients.

5. Stronger Outcomes Tips, Medical Interpreters Services, Massachusetts General Hospital
Tips for working with limited English proficient (LEP) patients.

6. Williams, K.B., Bray, K. Motivational Interviewing: A Patient-Centered Approach to Elicit Positive Behavior Change. Dentalcare.com.
A strategy for communicating and learning from the patient in a patient-centered way.

7. Working with Interpreters: Guidelines. (2007). Queensland Health Interpreter Services. Queensland Government: Queensland Health.
Guidelines for working with interpreters.

CULTURE & CULTURAL COMPETENCY

Culture

1. A Religious Portrait of African-Americans. The Pew Forum.
This Pew Forum report describes some of the religious and spiritual beliefs of African-Americans.

2. Understanding Native American's Religious Beliefs. A.I.R. Policy Center.
This report describes some of the religious and spiritual beliefs of Native Americans.

(HP note: Although the resources focus on African-Americans and American Indians, a broader understanding of the resources is that religion can play an important part in the lives of some groups.)

3. Class Matters: Class and Health. The New York Times.  
This slide presentation illustrates the effects of class on health.

4. Dole E.J., Rhyne R.L., Zeilmann C.A., Skipper B.J., McCabe M.L., Low Dog T. (2000). The influence of ethnicity on use of herbal remedies in elderly Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. J Am Pharm Assoc, 40(3), 359-65. This study pertains to ethnic differences in the use of herbal remedies (complementary and alternative medicine).
(HP note: Although this manuscript discusses herbal remedy use among ethnic populations; the broader message illustrates differences in cultural beliefs, values, and practices around complementary and alternative medicine.)

5. Galanti, G. (2004). Caring for Patients from Different Cultures (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.
This text is a broad guide for interacting with patients who may have different cultural beliefs, values and practices from health care professionals. The text provides broad traits and characteristics for racial and ethnic groups, but cautions one not to approach all group members as if they may adhere to all of their cultural beliefs, values and practices.

6. Healthy People 2020.
Healthy People 2020 is a U.S. Department of Health and Human Services resource where the aim is to improve the health of all Americans. The resource frames and discusses issues such as culture and health disparities.

7. Henslin, J. (2007). Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Pearson. Sociology is presented as an aspect of everyday life. Chapters include Culture (what is it), Socialization (how we become who we are) and Medicine and Health.

8. How Class Works. The New York Times.
The New York Times provides an interactive tool to glean where you reside on the class continuum. Class is an important social and cultural determinant of health, which can have an impact on health. Class is a complex concept with respect to where individuals believe they and others reside.

9. How Well Are American Students Learning? Brown Center on Education Policy at Brookings. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 2012. 
One of the social and cultural determinants of health is education. This report discusses variations in education across the U.S.

10. Kleinman, A. (1980). Patients and healers in the context of culture: an exploration of the borderland between anthropology, medicine, and psychiatry. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. This text is foundational for culture and medical anthropological fieldwork. The text illustrates the importance of cultural competence with respect to understanding the patient's perspective and being able to communicate to the patient in a culturally and respectful way.

11. Kohls' Guide to American Values.
Dr. Kohls presents American culture (specifically the U.S.) from the perspective of a non-American. American cultural beliefs, values and practices are intended to encourage reflection and introspection on how other cultural groups may view Americans.

12. Think Cultural Health
The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Office of Minority Health manages this online resource, which is a repository for information, data, and emergent studies regarding culture and health.

13. TV habits 'can predict kids' waist size and fitness. (2012, July 15). BBC.  
The relationship between watching television and increasing excess weight is discussed.

14. Voils, Corrine I., Oddone, Eugene Z, Weinfurt, Kevin P., Friedman, Joelle Y., Schulman, Kevin A., & Bosworth, Hayden B. (2005). Who Trusts Healthcare Institutions? Results from a Community-Based Sample. Ethnicity and Disease, 15(1), 97-103. 
This study situates why there is a lack of trust in healthcare among some racial and ethnic groups and why trust is important to the clinical encounter.

Cultural Competency

1. The Joint Commission: Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient- and Family-Centered Care: A Roadmap for Hospitals. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: The Joint Commission, 2010.

The Joint Commission is the accreditation body for health care organizations and program and defines concepts, such as cultural competence and patient- and family-centered care, as well as providing standards and guidance on providing appropriate services.

2. Beach, M.C. Saha, S., Cooper, L.A. (2006). The Role and Relationship of Cultural Competence and Patient-Centeredness in Health Care Quality. The Commonwealth Fund.
This manuscript discusses the importance of cultural competence and patient-centeredness and how the approaches may be efficacious in improving healthcare.

3. Betancourt J.R., Green A.R., Carrillo J.E., Ananeh-Firempong O. (2003). Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Public Health Rep, 118(4), 293-302.
A framework for a cultural competence intervention is discussed, as well as ways to address racial and ethnic health disparities.

4. Cross, T., Bazron, B., Dennis, K., Isaacs, M. (1989). Towards a Culturally Competent System of Care, Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Child Development Center, Child and Adolescent Service System Program Technical Assistance Center. ()
This monograph defines cultural competence, the cultural competence continuum, elements and values of a culturally competent health care system and provides strategies to implement cultural competence.

5. Galanti, G. (2004). Caring for Patients from Different Cultures (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. 
This text is a broad guide for interacting with patients who may have different cultural beliefs, values and practices from health care professionals. The text provides broad traits and characteristics for racial and ethnic groups, but cautions one not to approach all group members as if they may adhere to all of their cultural beliefs, values and practices.

6. Kleinman, A. (1980). Patients and healers in the context of culture: an exploration of the borderland between anthropology, medicine, and psychiatry. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. This text is foundational for culture and medical anthropological fieldwork. The text illustrates the importance of cultural competence with respect to understanding the patient's perspective and being able to communicate to the patient in a culturally and respectful way.

7. Misra-Herbert, A. (2003). Physician cultural competence: Cross-cultural communication improves care. Cleve Clin J Med, 70(4), 289-303.
The importance of cultural competence, specifically communication, is discussed, focusing on improving the patient – provider relationship and providing quality care.

8. Poirier, T.I., Butler, L.M., Devraj, R., Gupchup, G.V., Santanello, C., Lynch, J.C. (2009). A Cultural Competency Course for Pharmacy Students. Am J Pharm Educ, 73(5), Article 81. ()
This manuscript describes an efficacious cultural competency course designed for pharmacy students.

9. Saha, S., Beach, M.C., Cooper, L.A. (2008). Patient Centeredness, Cultural Competence and Healthcare Quality. J Nat Med Assoc, 100(11), 1275-1285.
This manuscript explains conceptual models for cultural competence and patient-centeredness and how the models effect patient – provider interactions.

DEMOGRAPHICS

1. Brookings Institution. Report: Five Things the Census Revealed About America in 2011

This Brookings Institution Report describes changes and trends in the U.S. which includes the growth of minorities and the slowing growth of the majority.
(HP note: The relevance for health care is that the population is becoming more diverse now, which translates into more diverse health beliefs.)

2. Shin, H.B., Kominski, R.A. (2010). Language Use in the United States: 2007. American Community Survey Reports. U.S. Census Bureau.
This Census report provides data regarding the changing nature of language use in the U.S. and illustrates the growing need for interpreters.

3. Stein, R. Under kidney transplant proposal, younger patients would get the best organs. (2011, February 24). The Washington Post. Retrieved from
This Washington Post article discusses ethical issues in the context of kidney transplantation and age.

HEALTH DISPARITIES

1. Betancourt J.R., Green A.R., Carrillo J.E., Ananeh-Firempong O. (2003). Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Public Health Rep, 118(4), 293-302.
A framework for a cultural competence intervention is discussed, as well as ways to address racial and ethnic health disparities.

2. Carter-Pokras, O., & Baquet, C. (2002). What is a "health disparity"? Public Health Rep, 117(5), 426-434. ( )
This manuscript defines and conceptualizes what is health disparity and why it is relevant to health.

3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: NCHS Facts Sheets 
This resource provides information and data about racial and ethnic populations with respect to health and health disparities.

4. Class Matters: Class and Health. The New York Times.  
This slide presentation illustrates the effects of class on health.

5. Healthy People 2020.
Healthy People 2020 is a U.S. Department of Health and Human Services resource where the aim is to improve the health of all Americans. The resource frames and discusses issues such as culture and health disparities.

6. National Research Council. Examining the Health Disparities Research Plan of the National Institutes of Health: Unfinished Business. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006. ()
A National Institutes of Health plan to address and minimize health disparities.

7. National Research Council. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care (with CD). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2003.
This Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "...assesses the extent of disparities in the type and quality of health services received by U.S. racial and ethnic minorities and non-minorities..." to include contributors and recommendations for eliminating disparities. The report was requested by Congress.

8. Racial & Ethnic Minority Populations.
This resource provides information and data about racial and ethnic populations with respect to health and health disparities.

9. Think Cultural Health
The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Office of Minority Health manages this online resource, which is a repository for information, data, and emergent studies regarding culture and health. 

10. Unnatural Causes
"A seven-part documentary series exploring racial & socioeconomic inequalities in health." The series focuses on the social aspect of health as being explanatory along with behaviors and genetics.

PATIENT-CENTERED CARE

1. The Joint Commission: Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient- and Family-Centered Care: A Roadmap for Hospitals. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: The Joint Commission, 2010.
The Joint Commission is the accreditation body for health care organizations and program and defines concepts, such as cultural competence and patient- and family-centered care, as well as providing standards and guidance on providing appropriate services.

2. Beach, M.C. Saha, S., Cooper, L.A. (2006). The Role and Relationship of Cultural Competence and Patient-Centeredness in Health Care Quality. The Commonwealth Fund.
This manuscript discusses the importance of cultural competence and patient-centeredness and how the approaches may be efficacious in improving healthcare.

3. Saha, S., Beach, M.C., Cooper, L.A. (2008). Patient Centeredness, Cultural Competence and Healthcare Quality. J Nat Med Assoc, 100(11), 1275-1285.
This manuscript explains conceptual models for cultural competence and patient-centeredness and how the models effect patient – provider interactions.

SELF-AWARENESS

1. Ghoshal, R. , Lippard, C. D., Ribas, V., Muir, K. (2012). Beyond Bigotry: Teaching About Unconscious Prejudice. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Colorado Convention Center and Hyatt Regency, Denver, CO Online.
This manuscript is intended to facilitate students' understanding and perceptions of unconscious biases and prejudices.

2. Henslin, J. (2007). Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Pearson. Sociology is presented as an aspect of everyday life. Chapters include Culture (what is it), Socialization (how we become who we are) and Medicine and Health.

Back to top