Raymond Chong Lab



Human • Movement • Science • Lab

Director: Raymond Chong, PhD


   The Human Movement Science Laboratory is equipped to study automatic and voluntary motor coordination and adaptations using established and novel experimental paradigms such as surface perturbations, treadmill locomotion, forward fall, obstacle crossing and optical prism adaptation. Human models include healthy young and older individuals and those with neurologic conditions such as Parkinson's disease. Equipment available includes:

• NeuroCom Smart Equitest with long forceplate and EMG for assessing balance control, gross movements and visual acuity/gaze  »

• ADPM wireless sensor for assessing gross and subtle movements   »

• Zeo wireless EEG monitor for assessing quality of sleep  »

• Neuroscript system for assessing handwriting & eye-hand coordination  »

• PEAK Motus 3-D infrared motion capture system for assessing movements  »

 Research Projects

 In progress

• Fatigue in Parkinson's disease
• Comparison of sleep monitoring devices

• Associations among biochemical markers, postural control and quality of life in Parkinson's disease
• Effect of nicotinic acid augmentation on inflammation and motor functions in Parkinson's disease
• Visuospatial prioritization strategy on postural control during dual-tasking
• Postural adaptation to incline stance in individuals with somatosensory loss 
• Postural adaptation to incline stance in individuals with cerebellar disorder 

• Influence of tactile feedback on postural adaptation during incline stance in cerebellar and vestibular disorders
• Influence of tactile feedback on postural responses during surface translations in cerebellar and vestibular disorders
• Influence of concurrent versus terminal prism exposure on visuo-proprioceptive spatial alignment in Parkinson's disease
• Influence of lower extremity tactile stimulation on walking performance in Parkinson's disease


• Postural adaptation to incline stance in Parkinson's disease and vestibular disorders 
• Predicting freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease
• Simulation sickness in virtual environments
• Comparison of stance postural control with eyes closed versus open in the dark
• Virtual reality-based intervention to improve walking in Parkinson's disease
• Development of a questionnaire to assess postural instability in Parkinson's disease


pubmed SciENcv NIH biosketch  

Lee, K. H., Baksh, A., Bryant, A., McGowan, M., McMillan, R., & *Chong, R. K. (2017). Two mechanisms of perceptual-motor adaptation to inclined stance. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, In Press. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00480  *Corresponding author

Lee, K.H., & *Chong, R.K. (2017). Hysteresis in center of mass velocity control during the stance phase of treadmill walking. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11:187. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00187   *Corresponding author

Chong, R.K., Berl, B., Cook, B., Turner, P., & Walker, K. (2016). Individuals with a vestibular-related disorder use a somatosensory-dominant strategy for postural orientation after inclined stance. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 0:1–6. doi: 10.1111/ane.12658

Delafontaine, A., Honeine, J-L., Do, M-C., Gagey, O., & Chong, R.K. (2015). Comparative gait kinematics between unilateral and bilateral induced ankle hypomobility: Does symmetrical constraint an extent to improve speed performance? Neuroscience Letters, 603, 55-59. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2015.07.016

Wakade, C., *Chong, R.K., Bradley, E. & Morgan, J. (2015). Low-dose niacin supplementation modulates GPR109A levels and NAD/NADH ratio and ameliorates PD symptoms. Clinical Case Reports.  doi: 10.1002/ccr3.232   *Co-first & corresponding author

Chong, R.K., Lee, K.H., Morgan, J., & Wakade, C. (2015). Duration of step initiation predicts freezing in Parkinson's disease. Acta Neurologia Scandinavica, DOI: 10.1111/ane.12361. doi: 10.1111/ane.12361

Wakade, C., & *Chong, R.K. (2014). A novel treatment target for Parkinson’s disease. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 347, 34-38. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2014.10.024   *Co-first & corresponding author

Wakade, C., *Chong, R.K., Bradley, E., Thomas, B., Morgan, J. (2014). Upregulation of GPR109A in Parkinson’s disease. PLoS ONE, 9(10), e109818. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109818   *Co-first & corresponding author

Chong, R.K., Adams, K., Fenton, K., Gibson, M., Hodges, K., Horne, J., & Wakade, C. (2014). Postural adaptation to a slow sensorimotor set-changing task in Parkinson's disease. Comprehensive Psychology, 3(1), Article 9. doi: 10.2466/15.26.CP.3.9

Pillas, D., Kaakinen, M., Tzoulaki, I., Netuveli, G., Rodriguez, A., Fung, E., Chong, RK., et al. (2014). Infant locomotive development and its association with adult blood pressure. European Journal of Pediatrics, 173(10), 1309-1317. doi: 10.1007/s00431-014-2326-2

Chong, R.K. (2014). Approximation of the CoM estimate. Journal of Exercise, Sports & Orthopedics, 1(2), 1-3. doi: 10.15226/2374-6904/1/2/00107

Chong, R.K. (2012). Towards better evaluation tools. Journal of Novel Physiotherapies, 2:e125. http://omicsgroup.org/journals/towards-better-evaluation-tools-2165-7025.1000e125.php?aid=7363

Chong, R.K., Lee, K.Y., Morgan, J., Mehta, S., Hall, P., & Sethi, K. (2012). Diagnostic value of the rapid assessment of postural instability in Parkinson's disease (RAPID) questionnaire. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 66(7), 718-721.
doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2012.02927.x
Chong, R.K., Gibson, B., Horton, S., Lee, A., Mellinger, J., & Lee, K.H. (2012). Spatial orientation during eyes closed versus open in the dark: Are they the same? World Journal of Neuroscience, 2, 126-132. doi: 10.4236/wjns.2012.22018

Chong, R.K., Lee, K.H., Morgan, J., Mehta, S., Griffin, J., Merchant, J., et al. (2011). Closed-loop VR-based interaction for improving walking in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Novel Physiotherapies, 1:101. doi: 10.4172/2165-7025.1000101

Chong, R.K., Morgan, J., Mehta, S., Hall, P., Pawlikowska, I., Ellis, A., Ibanez-Wong, A., Miller, G., Baugh, K., Sethi, K. (2011). Rapid assessment of postural instability in Parkinson's disease (RAPID): A pilot study. European Journal of Neurology, 18(2), 260-265. doi: 0.1111/j.1468-1331.2010.03115.x

Chong, R.K., Mills, B., Dailey, L., Lane, E., Smith, S., Lee, K.H. (2010). Specific interference between a cognitive task and sensory organization for stance balance control in healthy young adults: Visuospatial effects. Neuropsychologia, 48(9), 2709-2718. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.05.018

Chastan, N., Westby, G.W.M., T zenas du Montcel, S., Do, M.C., Chong R.K., Agid, Y., Welter, M.L. (2010). Influence of sensory inputs and motor demands on the control of the center of mass velocity control during gait initiation in human. Neuroscience Letters, 463(3), 400-404. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.12.038

Chong, R.K., Chiu, A., Lee, K.Y., & Do, M.C. (2009). An instance of reduced center of mass displacement: the Ba Gua Zhang walking gait. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 109(3), 1-3. doi: 10.2466/pms.109.3.646-648

Chong, R.K., Chastan, N., Welter, M.L., Do, M.C. (2009). Age-related changes in the center of mass velocity control during walking. Neuroscience Letters, 458, 23-27. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.04.022

Do, M.C., & Chong, R.K. (2008). Balance recovery from a forward fall: Developmental aspects of sensory-motor organization and the role of supraspinal control. Neuroscience Letters, 442(3), 300-304. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.07.008

Chong, R.K. (2008). Factor analysis of the Functional Limitations test. Gait & Posture, 28, 144-149. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2007.11.005

Chong, R.K., Adkins, L., Barber, S., Steele, K., & White, R. (2008). Abdominal exercise intensities on firm and compliant surfaces. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 106, 917-926. doi: 10.2466/pms.106.3.917-926

Chong, R.K., Bishop, L., Collins, W., Fielding, A., & Knight, N. (2006). Comparison of muscle functions during three contrasting abdominal exercises. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 103, 415-426. doi: 10.2466/pms.103.2.415-426

Michel, V., Do, M. C., & Chong, R.K. (2004). The strategies to regulate and modulate the propulsive forces during gait initiation in lower limb amputees. Experimental Brain Research, 158(3): 356-365. doi: 10.1007/s00221-004-1908-z

Chong, R.K. & Do, M. C. (2003). Control of center of mass velocity during walking. S. G. Pandalai (editor), Recent Research Developments in Biomechanics (pp. 65-72). India: Transworld Research Network.

Chong, R.K., & Do, M.C. (2002). Interaction between a transient change in local muscle structure and segmented leg motor responses. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 92, 265-272. doi: 10.2466/pms.2002.95.1.155

Chong, R.K., Carzoli, J., Ambrose, A., Hardison, L., & Jacobson, B. (2001). Source of improvement in balance control after an ankle proprioception training program. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 92: 265-272. doi: 10.2466/pms.2001.92.1.265

Chong, R.K., Barbas, J., Garrison, K., Herolz, A., Teheng, R., & Sethi, K. (2001). Does balance control deficit account for the walking difficulty in Parkinson's disease? International Journal of Clinical Practice, 55(6), 411-412.

Chong, R.K., & Franklin, M.E. (2001). Initial evidence for the mixing and soft assembly of the ankle, suspensory and hip muscle patterns. Experimental Brain Research, 136(2): 250-255. doi: 10.1007/s002210000578

Chong, R.K., Horak, F.B., & Woollacott, M.H. (2000). Parkinson's disease impairs the ability to change set quickly. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 175(1): 57-70. doi: 10.1016/S0022-510X(00)00277-X

Chong, R. K., Horak, F. B., & Woollacott, M. H. (1999). Time-dependent influence of sensorimotor set on automatic balance responses in perturbed stance. Experimental Brain Research, 124(4): 513-519. doi: 10.1007/s002210050647

Chong, R.K., Horak, F.B., & Jones, C. (1999). Postural set for balance is normal in Alzheimer's but not in Parkinson's diseases. Journal of Gerontology. A, Medical and Biological Sciences, 54A(3): M129-M135. doi: 10.1093/gerona/54.3.M129

Chong, R.K., Horak, F.B., Frank, J., & Kaye, J. (1999). Sensory organization for balance: Specific deficits in Alzheimer's but not in Parkinson's diseases. Journal of Gerontology. A, Medical and Biological Sciences, 54A(3): M122-M128. doi: 10.1093/gerona/54.3.M122

Chong, R.K., & Horak, F. B. (1998). Role of the Basal Ganglia in Behavioral Plasticity: Insights from Individuals with Parkinson's Disease. Neurology Report, 22(2): 68-72.

Chong, R.K., & Bedford, T. G. (1997). Heart rate, blood pressure, and running speed responses to mesencephalic locomotor region stimulation in anesthetized rats. Pflugers Archiv. European Journal of Physiology, 434: 280-284. doi: 10.1007/s004240050397

Chong, R. (1995). Jump heading in soccer: Increase power and distance. Strategies, 19-22. doi: 10.1080/08924562.1994.10591996

Do, M.C., Schneider, C. & Chong, R. (1999). Factors influencing the quick onset of stepping following postural perturbation. Journal of Biomechanics, 32: 795-802. doi: 10.1016/S0021-9290(99)00067-6

Tang, P. F., Woollacott, M. H., & Chong, R.K. (1998). Control of reactive balance adjustments in perturbed human walking: Roles of proximal and distal postural muscle activity. Experimental Brain Research, 119(2): 141-152. doi: 10.1007/s002210050327


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